Dietary Supplements and Cardiovascular Diseases

Sofia Bronzato, Alessandro Durante

Abstract


The market of nutritional supplements is expected to expand over 6%/year through 2018 due to growing interest in personal health, aging population, and promising personalized care products. The most used dietary supplements are fish oil, multivitamins, Vitamin D, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in this order, while probiotics is the fastest growing supplement. In the U.S., over 68% of the population use dietary supplements regularly. On the other hand, in the developed countries, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death and morbidity from the 1900s. The effects of most dietary supplements on cardiovascular risk and CVD have been studied for a long time. However, despite several studies explored the association of the various supplements to the cardiovascular risk, there is still a lack of consensus. Multivitamin supplementation has been advocated to reduce cardiovascular events; Vitamin D levels have been associated with the occurrence of coronary
artery disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation; CoQ10 deficiency has been associated with myocardial dysfunction and with statin myopathy; probiotoics has been suggested to lower both blood pressure and circulating lipids. However, the study of the effects of dietary supplementations is not straightforward, since people assuming dietary supplements generally have a healthier diet and lifestyle, and randomized studies are rarely performed. In this review, we will summarize the
findings linking dietary supplements to CVD with a special focus on novel insights.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk, dietary supplements, multivitamins, probiotics, Vitamin D


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