Transfusion Medicine and Molecular Genetic Methods

Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh, Zulkafli Zefarina, Nor Fazila Che Mat, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur


Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for fnding suitable donors for transfusion patients. The ABO blood group and HLA markers are also the determinants of transplant compatibility, and mismatched antigens will cause graft rejection or graft‑versus‑host disease. Thus,
a single and comprehensive registry covering all of the signifcant transfusion and transplantation antigens is expected to become an important tool in providing an effcient service capable of delivering safe blood and quickly locating matching organs/stem cells. This review article is intended as an accessible guide for physicians who care for transfusion‑dependent patients. In particular, it serves to introduce the new molecular screening methods together with the biology of these systems,
which underlies the tests.

Keywords: Blood groups, genetic marker, human platelet antigen and human leukocyte antigen, transfusion

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