Human Immunodefciency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Infection Prevention Following Occupational Exposure among Staff at a Regional Referral Hospital in Western Kenya

Barbara Kabai Burmen, Joseph Mogunde, Pamela Olilo

Abstract


Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) aides in preventing human immunodefciency virus (HIV) infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among
hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital.

Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January
2011 and December 2012. Proportions were used to summarize number of participants receiving the recommended services, Kaplan–Meier curves were used to describe time to ART initiation, and Chi‑square statistics was used to describe the association between participant characteristics
and PEP completion rates. P < 0.05 was considered statistically signifcant.

Results: Majority of documented hospital staff (n = 52) were health workers (63%) and students (27%) and had high HIV risk exposures (97%). All had timely PEP initiation with 50% completing PEP. Completion rates did not vary by gender (P = 0.78), exposure type (P = 1.0), or department of exposure (P = 0.75). Retesting for HIV and negativity rates at months 1.5, 3, and 6 were 96%, 25%, and 17% and 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. At the time of exposure, 17% (9) of staff were HBV vaccinated and HBV status of sources was unknown; no intervention was provided for HBV prevention.

Conclusions: Low rates of completion and follow‑up negate intended benefts of PEP. Efforts should be directed to enforce universal precaution practices and completion of PEP. Low rates of HBV testing and vaccination illustrate the need for support for the implementation of HBV prevention guidelines.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, human immunodefciency virus/AIDS, workplace injuries


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